Demand response refers to all functions and processes applied to influence the behavior of energy consumption. This can range from simple signaling, e-mail, SMS, or a phone call to a person who switches a load on or off, to fully integrated load management, where many consumption devices are dynamically controlled according to availability or to the price of energy.

Since the demand for electrical energy in many cases is closely connected to the demand for alternative forms of energy, heating and cooling energy, or mechanical energy, demand response solutions must each far beyond the electrical grid itself. In particular, optimization must include all energy forms which are interconnected....