All of Russia’s HVDC systems and back-to-back HVDC links have been planned, commissioned and operated by the country’s Ministry for Electrical Power and Electrification. With the exception of the first HVDC project between Kashira and Moscow, which was the only one constructed using foreign equipment, the HVDC projects have been constructed using major plant, automation and protection equipment developed, manufactured and delivered by the factories of the Ministry for Electrotechnical Industry.
The former Soviet Union started HVDC system research and development (R&D) at several scientific research institutes in the 1930s, but the first project was not commissioned until 1950. Three organizations from the former Soviet Union played the main part in the implementation of all of the HVDC systems:
More than 60 other R&D institutes, project and construction organizations, and industrial enterprises took part in the creation of HVDC systems. The following is a summary of major Russian HVDC systems. Images originally appeared in "HVDC Advances in the Russian Federation" in the December 2013 issue of Transmission & Distribution World.