Substations are a crucial element for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Their primary role is to transfer and transform electrical energy (stepping-up or down the voltage).ince the first substations were built more than 100 years ago, there has been tremendous development of both the primary equipment (switchgear, power transformers, etc.) and the secondary equipment (protection, control and metering, etc).The latest step in substation development comes with the introduction of the standard IEC 61850-9-2 for the process bus interface.

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Next generation substations