System analysis indicates DSRs can improve available transfer capacity. They also can be used to reduce the magnitude of loop flows, reduce contingency-induced overloads (N-1, N-2), support renewable integration, expand maintenance and construction outage windows, and defer line upgrades. Reducing a line flow by even a few percent can significantly defer upgrades and costs. Work is already underway to implement the concept in a state estimator, so optimal operating benefits can be planned for a complex interconnected grid rather than just on a line-by-line basis.

DSR technology offers transmission planners and operators a new tool that helps to address a wide range of issues facing utilities today. TVA stepped into a leadership role in the development, testing and trial of this technology.

The number of challenges transmission system owners must meet increases every year. Transmission owners and operators are asked to improve grid reliability, facilitate efficient electricity markets and integrate renewables. DSR technology has the potential to mitigate the problem of overloaded transmission lines; if the technology proves itself, the U.S. power grid will benefit.


DeJim Lowe ( is the senior manager of grid modernization technology in Tennessee Valley Authority's technology innovation organization. He has been with TVA for 22 years, supporting both transmission and distribution research and development needs. His areas of support have included electric transportation evaluation, synchrophasor applications identification, substation efficiency evaluation and data integration for asset management.

Joshua Shultz ( is an operations engineer in Tennessee Valley Authority's energy delivery, transmission and reliability organization. He has been with TVA for almost 10 years, filling both transmission planning and transmission operations roles. His research and technical interests include generator and voltage stability, optimal power flow and outage analysis.

Ian Grant ( is the planning coordinator for Tennessee Valley Authority's energy delivery department. He has more than 40 years experience in transmission and system design. He previously held positions at Power Technologies Inc., General Electric Co. and The Electricity Commission of NSW in Australia. He has authored more than 50 professional publications and is an IEEE Fellow and CIGRÉ Distinguished Member.

Frank Lambert ( serves as the associate director of the National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center at Georgia Tech. He is responsible for interfacing with NEETRAC's members to develop and conduct research projects dealing with transmission and distribution issues. Lambert previously worked at Georgia Power Co. for 22 years in transmission/distribution system design, construction, operation, maintenance and automation.


Baltimore Gas & Electric |

Department of Energy |

National Rural Electric Cooperative Association


Smart Wire Grid |

Southern Company |

Tennessee Valley Authority |